The European and Russian space agencies are to send a lander to an unexplored area at the Moon's south pole.
It will be one of a series of missions that prepares for the return of humans to the surface and a possible permanent settlement.
The spacecraft will assess whether there is water, and raw materials to make fuel and oxygen.
Luna 27, which is set for launch in five years' time.
The mission is one of a series led by the Russian federal space agency, Roscosmos, to go back to the Moon.