A previously unknown Beethoven arrangement for an ancient hymn has been uncovered after 192 years.
University of Manchester's Professor Barry Cooper said The composer wrote a harmony for the Gregorian chant Pange Lingua and modified its tune.
The passage was written in a sketchbook but had previously been regarded as an exercise or a sketch for another piece.
Professor Cooper recognised the hymn's tune and identified the two-minute piece as a previously unknown Beethoven work.
The leading expert on the composer said it was a rare example of the composer writing religious music.