Also included in the squad are Jonny Bairstow, Jos Buttler and Sam Curran, all of whom were rested for the New Zealand series, along with Ben Stokes, who captained England's 50-over side against Pakistan.
Notable absentees include Jofra Archer and Chris Woakes who has sustained a bruised heel. Olly Stone and Ben Foakes also remain sidelined through injury.
Haseeb Hameed is included as a batting option with Dom Sibley, Rory Burns and Zak Crawley for a top-three berth, while Ollie Pope is also named despite sustaining a thigh injury.
Dan Lawrence is also retained.
There is no place in the squad for James Bracey, who endured a gruelling debut series against New Zealand last month, nor for Dawid Malan, who has been mooted as an option at No. 3 ahead of a winter Ashes tour.
On the bowling front, James Anderson and Stuart Broad are both included alongside Mark Wood. Dom Bess and Jack Leach are both selected as spin options. Craig Overton, who was named in the squad for the New Zealand series, misses out on selection, as does Saqib Mahmood despite his impressive limited-overs performances.
"A home Test series against India is one of the most anticipated red-ball series and this promises to be an outstanding five Tests," Silverwood said. "India are a quality team who have shown their ability to get results away from home. We are expecting a highly competitive series and have selected our strongest possible squad.
"The returns of allrounders Ben Stokes and Sam Curran provide balance that allows us to get back to a structure that has been successful in Test cricket.
"Ben's leadership in the Royal London Series, when he played despite his finger not yet being 100 percent, typified his character and commitment that drives the players around him forward. With Jos and Jonny back in the squad we have added further experience and quality that will be needed against the world's second-ranked team."
England Men's Test Squad: Joe Root (capt), James Anderson, Jonny Bairstow, Dom Bess, Stuart Broad, Rory Burns, Jos Buttler, Zak Crawley, Sam Curran, Haseeb Hameed, Dan Lawrence, Jack Leach, Ollie Pope, Ollie Robinson, Dom Sibley, Ben Stokes, Mark Wood