Putin hosted Widodo more than four months into Moscow's offensive in Ukraine, as Russia seeks to pivot toward Asia and Africa following the onset of unprecedented Western sanctions.
Indonesia holds the rotating presidency of the G20 this year and is preparing to host a summit in Bali in November.
"I conveyed President Zelenskyy's message to President Putin," Widodo said after talks with the Kremlin chief in comments translated into Russian.
Widodo said he expressed his "readiness" to help start "communication" between the two leaders.
He did not provide further details, and neither side said what was in the note.
During a press conference with Putin, Widodo said that he hoped for progress reintegrating global food and fertiliser supply lines disrupted by the conflict, and offered to be a diplomatic bridge between the two nations.
"I really appreciate President Putin who said earlier that he will provide security guarantee for food and fertiliser supplies from both Russia and Ukraine. This is good news," said the Indonesian president, who is widely known as Jokowi.
"For the sake of humanity, I also support the United Nations' efforts to reintegrate Russian food and fertiliser commodities and Ukrainian food commodities to re-enter the world supply chain," he said.
Jokowi said he had urged leaders of the G7 during a meeting he attended in Germany this week to ensure sanctions on Russia did not affect food and fertiliser supplies.
The war in Ukraine has caused major disruptions to global trade, with the prices of grain and wheat soaring amid a blockade of Ukrainian seaports and sanctions on Russian commodities such as oil, gas and fertiliser.
Speaking alongside Jokowi in Moscow, President Putin denied Russia was blocking Ukrainian grain exports.