The former leader - who was president between 2001 and 2008 - died after a long illness, a statement from the country's army said.
He had survived numerous assassination attempts and found himself on the front line of the struggle between militant Islamists and the West.
He supported the US "war on terror" after 9/11 despite domestic opposition.
In 2008 he suffered defeat in the polls and left the country six months later.
When he returned in 2013 to try to contest the election, he was arrested and barred from standing. He was charged with high treason and was sentenced to death in absentia only for the decision to be overturned less than a month later.
He left Pakistan for Dubai in 2016 to seek medical treatment and had been living in exile in the country ever since.
In the statement confirming the death, the military said it expressed its "heartfelt condolences" and added: "May Allah bless the departed soul and give strength to the bereaved family."